Data Rate Latency Localization accuracy Main system parameters Measurement scenario and parameters; Additional Comments(the antenna array comparison)
Proposed Solution ~750 Mbps per link and can support up to 64 links within 10Gbps (100 MHz DL BW)Spectral Efficiency:7.5b/s/Hz Measured 0.1 ms latency between UE and DRAN Physical Layers, which indicates < 1ms latency can be easily achieved depends on the resolution that can be measured for the delay of the Zadoff-Chu sequences (with 10GHz clock = 0.03 meters)ut this can be affected by channel noise and bandwidth available for length of Z-C sequence, which needs to be tested experimentally and practical aspects such as synchronization and calibration of the whole system, the TDOA-estimator and its performance in multipath scenario (with only 100MHz). 60GHz:

  • · TRx Frequency: 53GHz to 64GHz
  • · LO Frequency: 12.5GHz to 14.5GHz
  • · LO input power: -10dBm to 0Bm
  • · Tx Power: 5dBm (at the up converter)
  • · Rx power: max -20dBm (at the down converter)
  • · Rx dynamic range:
  • · Rx sensitivity:
  • · IF Input power range: -40dBm to 10dBm (at the up converter) -40dBm to -5dBm (at the down convertor)
  • · IF input frequency: 3GHz to 6GHz
  • · Instantaneous Bandwidth: 2.5GHz

40GHz:

  • · TRx Frequency: 37GHz to 40GHz
  • · LO Frequency: 15.5GHz to 18.5GHz
  • · LO input power: -10dBm to 0Bm
  • · Tx Power: 20dBm (at the up converter)
  • · Rx power: max -20dBm (at the down converter)
  • · Rx dynamic range:
  • · Rx sensitivity:
  • · IF Input power range: -40dBm to 10dBm (at the up converter) -40dBm to -5dBm (at the down convertor)
  • · IF input frequency: 3GHz to 6GHz
  • · Instantaneous Bandwidth: 3GHz
  1. Indoor environment;
  2. Antenna: with horn and without horn;
  3. Height: 2m, 1.3m, 1m;
  4. Angles between the Tx and Rx: 0°, 8.5°, 15°, 30°, 45°
  1. Best EVM with horn: 4.5%(1m), 4.3%(1.3m), 4.8%(2m);
  2. Best EVM without horn: 6.1%(1m), 6%(1.3m), 7%(2m);
  3. Best EVM with horn: 4.5%(0°), 4.8%(8.5°), 4.6%(15°), 5.1%(30°), 6.1%(45°);
  4. Best EVM without horn: 6.1%(0°), 7.1(8.5°), 6.5(15°), 7.4%(30°), 7.5%(45°);
Imec PHARA4 [1] 4.5Gbps
  1. Frequency: 58.32~64.8GHz
  2. enables beam steering;
  3. supports QPSK and 16QAM;
  4. DC power is 425mW Tx and 350 mW Rx Pdc;
  5. for the 16-antenna module, the scan range in azimuth is 120 degrees, in elevation is 60 degrees, the beam width is about 5 degrees;
  6. beamforming phase resolution ~ 5º ;
  7. features beamforming amplitude resolution ~1dB).
It is a small 4-antenna module with 4 Tx-Rx phased array. It supports all 4 channels of the 802.11ad.
Metnet 60G mmWave [2] 12Gbps Spectral Efficiency:5.6b/s/Hz
  1. Frequency band: 60GHz mmWave unlicensed Full 57GHz to 71GHz band;
  2. Beamwidth: Wide 300° field of view;
  3. Antennas: Beamforming Phase array 16×2 element arrangement 20dBi gain per antenna;
  4. Channels: Multiple 2160MHz wide channels;
  5. Transmitter: 20dBm SiGE based;
  6. Effective radiated power: 42dBm per sector
  7. Range: 300m at MCS10 (3Gbps), High gain CPE node range up to 1km at 3Gbps;
Beamforming phase array 16×2 element arrangement
NI mmWave Transceiver System [3]
  1. Frequency range: 24.25 – 33.4 GHz, 37 – 43.5 GHz, 71 – 76 GHz;
  2. Instantaneous Bandwidth: 2GHz;
  3. Rx Analog Gain Range: 50 dB (24.25 – 33.4 GHz and 37 – 43.5 GHz), 55 dB (71 – 76 GHz);
  4. Tx Analog Gain Range: 55 dB (24.25 – 33.4 GHz, 37 – 43.5 GHz and 71 – 76 GHz)
  5. Rx 1dB Gain Compression: -13dBm (24.25 – 33.4 GHz and 37 – 43.5 GHz), -12dBm (71 – 76 GHz);
  6. Rx Noise Figure: 6 dB
  7. Tx Output IP3: 28 dBm (24.25 – 33.4 GHz and 37 – 43.5 GHz), 30 dBm (71 – 76 GHz);
Unidirectional 2×2 MIMO Bidirectional 2×2 MIMO, Ideal system for prototyping real-time two-way communications systems
Data Rate Latency Localization accuracy Main system parameters Measurement scenario and parameters

 

Modulation Additional Comments(Add one column for the modulation comparison)
Proposed Solution

 

46mbps over 10MHz (EVM 4%) 2 meters per link and can support upto 64 links (about 3Gbps) within overall 10Gbps

Spectral Efficiency:4.6b/s/Hz

VLP processing time: ~ 0.8s ~ 10 cm RSS, trilateration ,

IMU positioning

 

Indoor environment 2x1x2.4m location area

 

3GPP 5G-NR modulation scheme Testing with low cast commercial white LED and using 3GPP 5G NR modulation scheme
Existing VLC Solution [1] 15.73 Gb/s

(Spectral Efficiency:3.933b/s/Hz for 4 links)

Off-line process N/A 4 single color LEDs, over 1.6m link (4 individual links) Indoor lab, point-to-point system using aspheric condenser lenses DCO-OFDM this is the highest data rate ever reported for LED-based VLC systems
Existing VLC Solution [2] 25 Gb/s(testing at 20cm distance)

Spectral Efficiency:0.958b/s/Hz

Real-time N/A A red-light vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), over 5m link Under highly turbid harbor water NRZ-OOK digital modulation this is the world fastest NRZ-OOK UWOC system, based on laser
Existing VLC Solution [3] N/A <20ms(location processing latency) 3.40cm 1.8 m × 1.8 m × 2.1 m location area Indoor lab N/A high precision positioning with only 20 training points
Existing VLC Solution [4] 25 Gb/s Real-time N/A A red-light vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), over 5m link Under highly turbid harbor water NRZ-OOK (IEEE.802.15.7 LiFi standard) this is the world fastest NRZ-OOK UWOC system, based on laser
Existing VLC Solution [5] N/A VLP Processing time:<1.14s ~22 cm RSS, Trilateration and multi-rotation light positioning

5x5x3 m location area

Indoor 3D positioning scenario with multi- rotation IM/DD modulation: PSK Positioning using

Multi-rotation of Rx

Existing VLC Solution [6] N/A N/A 14 cm RSS, Trilateration, IMU positioning Indoor 2D positioning and tracking scenario

2.5 x2.5 x2.84 m location area

FSK Calibration VLP with IMU, 34 cm VLP accuracy using 7LEDs
Existing VLC Solution [9] N/A N/A 2.4 cm RSS, Trilateration , RF Carrier Allocation Indoor 3D positioning lab

Area: 0.6×0.6×0.6 m

TDMA Positioning using intensity modulation/direct detection and carrier allocation methods
Existing VLC Solution [7] N/A N/A 25 cm AOA, Triangulation, IMU Indoor 3D positioning Area 5x3x3 m N/A Calibration VLP with accelerometer
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